1066 - 1154
The Normans were descendants of Vikings who had settled by force in North East France around the mouth of the Seine River. The land they occupied became known as Normandy. (The name Normandy comes from the French normand, meaning Norsemen and Normans)
- King William I, the Conqueror 1066 - 1087
- King Henry I 1100 - 1135
- King Stephen 1135 - 1154
- (Empress Matilda 1141)
- Age 38-59
- Born: September 1028 at Falaise, Normandy
- Parents: Robert I, Duke of Normandy, and Arlette daughter of Fulbert (illegitimate)
- Ascended to the throne: 25 December 1066 aged 38 years
- Crowned: 25 December 1066 at Westminster Abbey
- Married: His cousin Matilda, Daughter of Count of Flanders and granddaughter of the King of France
- Children: 4 sons including William II and Henry I, and 6 daughters
- Died: 9 September 1087 at Rouen, France, aged 59 years
- Buried at: St Stephens Abbey, Caen, Normandy
- Succeeded by: his son William I
The Norman Duke, William was friendly with English King, Edward the Confessor and attacked England on Edwards death because he had been promised the English crown by Edward but denied it by the Saxon Harold.
Defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings.
In 1085 the Domesday Survey was begun and all England was recorded so William knew exactly what his new kingdom contained. The Domesday Book was, in effect, the first national census.
The Domesday Book
William ruled simultaneously in both England and parts of France. This set the scene for regular land battles over territory in France for the next 500 years.
When William died his lands were divided between his eldest two sons. Robert inherited Normandy, while William became king of England.
King William II, Rufus 1087 - 1100
- Age about 27-40
- Born: c.1056 at Normandy
- Parents: William I and Matilda of Flanders
- Ascended to the throne: 9 September 1087
- Crowned: 26 September 1087 at Westminster Abbey
- Married: Unmarried
- Children: None
- Died: 2 August 1100 at New Forest, Hampshire
- Buried at: Winchester
- Succeeded by: his brother Henry
He was called William Rufus or William the Red
because of the reddish colour of his hair and complexion.
William died out hunting in the New Forest in mysterious circumstances with an arrow in his back. No one knows if it was deliberate or an accident but what is known is that Rufus was very unpopular, so many people think he may have been murdred.
The Rufus Stone in The New Forest marks the spot where he fell.
- Age 31-67
- Born: September 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire
- Parents: William I and Matilda of Flanders
- Ascended to the throne: 3 August 1100 aged 31 years
- Crowned: 6 August 1100 at Westminster Abbey
- Married: (1) Edith (Matilda), Daughter of Malcolm III Scotland
(2) Adelicia, Daughter of Geoffrey VII, count of Louvain
- Children: Daughter Matilda, son William, and reputedly around 20 illegitimate children
- Died: 2 December 1135 at St Denis le Fermont, Normandy, aged 67 years
- Buried at: Reading
- Succeeded by: his nephew Stephen
King of England and Normandy
Henry was the fourth and youngest son of William I. His two sons were drowned so his daughter Matilda was made his successor. However, when Henry died the Council considered a woman unfit to rule so offered the throne to Stephen, a grandson of William I.
This plunged England into civil war as the country was divided over Henry's plans for his daughter Matilda to take the throne as the first ever Queen of England.
- Age about 38-57
- Born: c.1097 at Blois, France
- Parents: Stephen, Count of Blois, and Adela (daughter of William I)
- Ascended to the throne: 22 December 1135
- Crowned: 26 December 1135 at Westminster Abbey
- Married: Matilda, Daughter of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne
- Children: 3 sons and 2 daughters, plus at least 5 illegitimate children
- Died: 25 October 1154 at Dover, Kent
- Buried at: Faversham, Kent
- Succeeded by: his 2nd cousin Henry II
King of England from 1135.
Nephew of Henry I and grandson of William l. He was elected king in 1135, although he had previously recognised Henry I's daughter Matilda as heiress to the throne.
1136 - Civil war disrupted the country with fighting between Stephen and forces loyal to Matilda.
1139 - Matilda landed in England
1141 - Stephen was briefly taken prisoner and Matilda declared "Lady off the English" until she was defeated at the Battle of Farringdon in 1145.
Matilda agreed with Stephen to end the wars so long as he agreed to her son Henry becoming the next King of England.
In December 1153, Stephen agreed to the Treaty of Westminster (Wallingford) with Henry. In the treaty it was agreed, among other things that on Stephen's death the throne would go to Matilda's son, Henry
In 1154, Stephen died and the line of Norman Kings ended.
- Born: 1102
- Parents: Henry I of England and Matilda of Scotland
- Married: (1) German Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor. He died in 1125 (2) Prince Geoffrey of Anjou and Maine in April 1127
- Children: Three sons by her second marriage - Henry, Geoffrey and William
- Died: 10 September 1169 Rouen, France
- Buried: Fontevrault Abbey.
Matilda was called the Empress because her first husband had been the German Emperor.
1141 - Empress Matilda gained the upper hand over Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln.
Matilda was declared "Lady of the English" at Winchester. She went to London for her coronation as Queen. However, she was forced out of London by Stephen's supporters before she was crowned. Her very bad temper, wasn't very popular.
1066 - 1154 The Normans
1154 - 1216 The Angevins (The first Plantagenet kings)
1216 - 1399 Plantagenets
1399 - 1461 The House of Lancaster
1461 - 1485 The House of York
1485 -1603 The Tudors
1603 - 1649 and 1660 - 1714 The Stuarts
1714 -1901 The House of Hanovarians
1901 -1910 and 1910 - Today Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and The Windsors