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Roman Britain

 

Roman army

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Roman SoldierThe itallian flag Romans came to English flag Britain nearly 2000 years ago and changed our country. Even today, the ruins of Roman buildings, forts, roads, and baths can be found all over Britain.

The Romans invaded other countries too. The Roman Empire covered much of Europe, north Africa, and the Middle East.
(see map)

Roman helmetWho were the Romans?

The Romans lived in Rome, a city in the centre of the country of Italian flag Italy.

One day, some years before Jesus Christ was born, the Romans came to Britain.

Britain before the Romans (The Celts)

Who founded Rome?
When did the Romans invade Britain?
Why did the Romans invade Britain?
How long did the Romans stay in Britain?
Why did the Romans leave Britain?
What did the Romans call London?
Why was the Roman Empire important?
What did the Romans give us?

 

Where is Italy

Roman helmetWho founded Rome?

According to the Roman legend, Romulus was the founder of Rome. Romulus and his twin brother Remus were the sons of the God Mars. When they were very young they were abandoned by the banks of the River Tiber and left to fend for themselves. Luckily for them they were found by a she-wolf who took pity on them fed them with her milk.  The boys were later found by a shepherd who raised them. The boys grew up to be very strong and clever and they decided to build a town on the spot where the Shepherd had found them. They named their town Rome.
Find out more

Roman helmetWhen did the Romans invade Britain?

First invasion - Caesar's first raid

In August 55 B.C. (55 years before Jesus was born) the Roman general, Julius Caesar invaded Britain. He took with him two Roman legions. After winning several battles against the Celtic tribes (Britons) in south-east England he returned to France.

Second invasion - Caesar's second raid

The following summer (in 54 B.C.) Caesar came to Britain again landing at Walmer near Deal in Kent. This time he brought with him no fewer than five legions (30,000 foot soldiers) and 2,000 cavalrymen (horse riders). This time they crossed the River Thames. After more fighting, the British tribes promised to pay tribute to Rome and were then left in peace for nearly a century.

Roman Army

Map of KentThird and final invasion

Nearly one hundred years later, in 43 A.D. (43 years after Jesus was born), Emperor Claudius organised the final and successful Roman invasion of Britain. General Aulus Plautius led four legions with 25,000 men, plus an equal number of auxiliary soldiers. They crossed the Channel in three divisions, landing at Richborough, Dover, and Lympne.

The biggest battle was fought on the banks of the River Medway, close to Rochester. It went on for two days before the Celtic tribes retreated.

Many tribes tried to resist the Romans. It took about four years for the invaders to finally gain control over southern England, and another 30 years for them to conquer all of the West Country and the mountains and valleys of Wales. The battle for Yorkshire and the remainder of northern England was still underway in AD 70.

photo taken in  Norwich Castle Museum

Roman helmetWhy did the Romans invade Britain?

The Romans were cross with Britain for helping the Gauls (now called the French) fight against the Roman general Julius Caesar. They came to Britain looking for riches - land, slaves, and most of all, iron, lead, zinc, copper, silver and gold.

Roman helmetHow long did the Romans stay in Britain?

The Romans remained in Britain from 43 AD to 410 AD. That is almost four hundred years (four centuries).

Roman helmetWhy did the Romans leave Britain?

Their homes in Italy were being attacked by fierce tribes and every soldier was needed.

Roman helmetWhat did the Romans call London?

The Romans called London 'Londinium'.

The River Thames was quick way to transport goods between Britain and the Continent. The Romans saw this and built the town of Londinium around the river's main crossing point.
Find out more about Roman London

Roman helmetWhy was the Roman Empire important?

The Romans, even today, play an important part in our lives. Many of the things we do or have originated from the Romans.

soldierRoman helmetThe Romans gave us

  • Language
    The language we used today was developed from the Romans. The Romans spoke and wrote in Latin and many of our words are based on Latin words.
  • The Calendar
    Did you know that the calendar we use today is more than 2,000 years old? It was started by Julius Caesar, a Roman ruler. It is based on the movement of the earth around the sun, and so is called the 'solar calendar.' The solar calendar has 365 days a year, and 366 days every leap year, or every fourth year. The names of our months are taken from the names of Roman gods and rulers. The month 'July,' in fact, is named after Julius Caesar himself!
  • Laws and a legal system
    The laws and ways we determine what to do with someone who is accused of breaking a law came originally from the Roman Empire.
  • The Census
    The Roman Empire was huge and included millions of people living over a large area. How did they keep track of all these people? Easy! They counted them! The Roman Empire began the practice of taking a census, or a 'count,' of all the people within its boundaries every so often. Today, many countries like ours take a census every 10 years.

The Romans also gave us:

  • straight roads
  • central heating
  • concrete
  • aqueducts (bridges for water)

Roman Soldiers

Use the links, top left, for more information about the Romans.

 
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Mandy left Woodlands in 2003 to work in Kent schools as an ICT Consulatant.
She now teaches computers at The Granville School and St. John's Primary School in Sevenoaks Kent.

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